Can stepparents, grandparents, and other caregivers be considered parents under FERPA?

Can stepparents, grandparents, and other caregivers be considered parents under FERPA?

In some cases, a stepparent may be considered a “parent” under FERPA if the stepparent is present on a day-to-day basis with the natural parent and child and the other parent is absent from that home.  Conversely, a stepparent who is not present on a day-to-day basis in the home of the child does not have rights under FERPA with respect to the child’s education records.  A grandparent or other caregiver who is acting in the absence of the parent(s) may also be considered a “parent” under FERPA.

Source: 34 CFR § 99.3